2022년 10월 13일

영어 논문 작성 시 유용한 문장 표현 모음

진아 채

1. Abstract/Introduction/Literature Review Sections

논지의 중요성 강조 (Establishing the importance of the topic)

-X is the leading cause of lung cancer in western industrialized countries.

-Xs are among the most widely used antiviral medications and…

-X is a common disease characterized by…

-The issue of X has received considerable critical attention

-X is an increasingly important issue in experimental astronomy…

-Xs are some of the most potent anti-coagulants that exist…

-X is an important component in robotics and plays a key role in Y.

논지의 중요성 강조 2 (Establishing the importance of the topic using a time frame)

Recent developments in X have increased the need for…

Over the past fifty years there has been a steady increase in…

Traditionally, Xs have employed one type of model that…

In the last five years, there has been increasing public interest in…

Recently, researchers have increased their scrutiny of…

Since the late 1970’s research into X has experienced a boom…

-One of the most important breakthroughs of the 1990’s was…

개요 시작 (Giving a synopsis of the literature)

-In the past decade, a number of studies have sought to determine…

Previous studies in this area of research have reported…

A considerable volume of literature has been published on X.

-Xs were reported in the later models of Y (e.g., Pinot, 1998; Gregory, & Mustafa, 2002).

-Jackson (2004: 154) demonstrates that past research into X was… Surveys such as those carried out by Jackson (2004) showed how…

연구 이슈 강조 (Highlighting a problem in the field of study)

However, these rapid changes are having serious effects…

-Regardless of the progress in the area of X, the major problem of Y persists.

Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.

Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of…

연구 분야 이슈 설명 (Highlighting a controversy in the field of study)

-To date there has been no consensus on how…

-Some observers have drawn attention to the conflict in…

-The controversy regarding confirmation of X has raged unabated for many decades.

Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of…

Little information is understood about X or what key factors…

이전 연구의 제한점 설명 (Highlighting inadequacies of previous studies)

-However, the relationship has not been strongly established

What is not yet clear is the impact of X on …

Most studies in the field of X have only focused on …

Results of previous studies have proved inconclusive

연구목적 설명 (Stating the purpose of the study)

-The main purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of…

-There are two central objectives of this study:

1.To investigate

2. To determine

-The aim of this survey has been to try and ascertain what…

-The goal of this study is to investigate the differences between….

-The purpose of this research is to examine the way in which …

연구 논지 또는 가설 설명 (Research question or hypotheses)

-The central question in this dissertation examines …

-This study aimed to address the following questions:

-In particular, this study will examine four main research questions:

-A crucial research question of this study was thus whether…

-The hypothesis that will be tested is…

2. Methods & Materials Section

연구 방법 개요 (Synopsis of methods and sources of data)

-This study was investigative and exploratory in nature.

-The study was conducted in the form of a series of experiments, with data being gathered via…

-This research takes the form of a case study of the…

-Using quantitative measures, I attempt to examine the…

-Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this study.

연구 설명 (Explaining why a method was used or rejected)

A longitudinal study was used to allow a wider sample of…

A qualitative method was avoided to ensure the accuracy of…

-However, there are certain drawbacks associated with the use of…

-The X approach has a number of useful features, including…

연구과정 설명 (Describe the process using sequential words/adverbs)

In order to identify the most responsive traits, the subjects were given…

To establish whether there were any mitigating factors…

For the purpose of measuring weight, all subjects stood…

Data for this study were retrospectively collected from…

Prior to undertaking this study, measurements were taken of…

Following this procedure, each sample was put in a…

-The resulting compound was manually mixed in a flask so that…

연구과정 세부 설명 (Describe the process using instruments/detailed information)

Data analysis was carried out using Qiqqa 4.

Comparisons between the two groups were made using t-tests…

Using X-ray and focusing on X, it was possible to measure…

At intervals of 2 min, 50cc of X was dissolved into Y….

3. Results Section

연구 목표 혹은 방법 언급 (Referring to aim or method)

To account for these two possibilities…

The correlation between X and Y was tested and found to be…

-The first group of analyses examined the effects of…

-T-tests were used to determine the connection between…

표, 그래프 등에 있는 데이터 강조 (Highlighting data in a table, graph, or chart)

As Table 4 shows, there is a clear trend of…

From the data in Figure 3.7, it can be seen that…

-The differences between X and Y are shown in Table 2.

-Data in this chart can be compared with those in Table 3, which…

긍정/부정적 결과 설명 (Giving positive/negative results)

There was a significant positive correlation between X and Y…

The results, as shown in Figure 25, indicate that…

Post hoc analysis indicated that the two groups were…

There was no significant increase of X associated with…

No significant reduction in X was found compared with placebo.

None of the differences measured were statistically significant.

Only trace amounts of X were found to be present in…

흥미로운 결과 설명 (Reporting interesting or surprising results)

Interestingly, X was shown to have…

Surprisingly, there was no correlation found between X and Y.

The most striking observation to emerge from the data analysis was…

-The most striking finding of this experiment was…

실험 및 조사 결과 설명 (Reporting results from interviews, surveys, and questionnaires)

-Forty-six individuals returned the questionnaires…

-Respondents were asked to indicate whether…

In response to the question “       ?” 53 percent indicated that…

The majority of those who responded to this item said that…

Just under half of the participants expressed the belief that…

결과 요약 (Summary and transition)

Together these results provide crucial insights into…

In summary, these results indicate that…

The results in this chapter point to…The next chapter therefore moves on to discuss…

Overall, these results imply that…

4. Discussion Section

연구 목적 및 질문 참조 (Referencing literature or research aim/question)

As mentioned in the review of literature, there are many studies that…

One initial objective was to determine what kind of…

It was hypothesized that participants dealing with Alzheimer’s would…

In the review of the literature, little to no data was found to connect…

-A strong relationship between X and Y was reported in the literature.

예상치 못한 결과에 대한 설명 (Stating unexpected outcome)

-Surprisingly, X was found to have no additional DNA markers in the…

This finding was unexpected and suggests that there is…

-Contrary to expectations, this study located no significant differences between…

One unanticipated finding was that X was…

이전 연구 참조 설명 (Referencing previous literature-supports/contradicts hypothesis)

These results match those mentioned in earlier studies of X….

This finding further supports the argument that X is…

These findings corroborate the ideas of Jackson and Coll (2011), who maintained that….

However, the findings of the current study are not consistent with previous research.

-This result has not previously been described in similar studies.

These findings differ from Ronald’s 1994 estimate of X, but are broadly consistent with earlier studies.

연구 결과에 대한 설명 (Giving an explanation for the results)

There are several possible explanations for such a result.

Another possible explanation for this might be…

These differences can be explained in part by the colors of X and Y.

It seems likely that these results are in fact due to…

This discrepancy could be attributed to…

-There are two likely causes for the differences between X and Y-

전반적인 가설 제공 (Suggesting a general hypothesis)

Therefore, it is possible/probable/likely that X and Y are…

Hence, it could be hypothesized that…

This finding, while preliminary, suggests that X is an agent of…

-The value of X suggests that a link may exist between…

예상 파급효과 설명 (Discussing wider implications)

-These results help us to understand how X and Y are connected.

-These results provide wider support for the hypothesis that…

One of the larger issues emerging from these findings is…

An implication of these findings is the potential for…

차후 연구 계획 (Suggesting future work)

There is abundant space for further progress in analyzing…

-At present, several questions remain unanswered.

A further study with more focus on X should be done to investigate…

Further studies of X that account for these variables need to be

undertaken.

5. Conclusion (End of Discussion Section)

연구 목적 요약 재설명 (Restating the aims of the study)

This study set out to determine that X had implications on…

In this investigation, the goal was to assess the efficacy of…

This paper argued that X was important in determining Y.

Further studies of X that account for these variables need to be undertaken.

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